2012/08/20

Indonesia menurut "CIA - The World Factbook"

Indonesia menurut "CIA - The World Factbook" -

Background

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999 after decades of repressive rule. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography

Archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Location:    Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Area: total: 1,904,569 sq km land: 1,811,569 sq km water: 93,000 sq km
Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 2,830 km border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline: 54,716 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use: arable land: 11.03% permanent crops: 7.04% other: 81.93% (2005)
Irrigated land: 67,220 sq km (2008)
Natural hazards: occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

People

Population: 245,613,043 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841) 15-64 years: 66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055) 65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 28.2 years male: 27.7 years female: 28.7 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.069% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 18.1 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 27.95 deaths/1,000 live births male: 32.63 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.33 years male: 68.8 years female: 73.99 years (2011 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 310,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,300 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s) adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.4% male: 94% female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia conventional short form: Indonesia local long form: Republik Indonesia local short form: Indonesia former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Jakarta geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta* note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence: 17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (recognized by the Netherlands); note - in August 2005 the Netherlands announced that it had recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution: August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Legal system: civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014) election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
Legislative branch: People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district) elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014) election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17 note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission
Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party or PD [Anas URANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi Hasan ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS; Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI; Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy Fortress or Bendera
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200 FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Scot A. MARCIEL embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110 mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520 telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000 FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922 consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Economy

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has weathered the global financial crisis relatively smoothly because of its heavy reliance on domestic consumption as the driver of economic growth. Increasing investment by both local and foreign investors is also supporting solid growth. Although the economy slowed to 4.5% growth in 2009 from the 6%-plus growth rate recorded in 2007 and 2008, by 2010 growth returned to a 6% rate. During the recession, Indonesia outperformed most of its regional neighbors. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship, leading two of the three leading credit agencies to upgrade credit ratings for Indonesia's sovereign debt to one notch below investment grade. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. YUDHOYONO and his vice president, respected economist BOEDIONO, have maintained broad continuity of economic policy, although the economic reform agenda has been slowed during the first year of their term by corruption scandals and the departure of an internationally respected finance minister. In late 2010, increasing inflation, driven by higher and volatile food prices, posed an increasing challenge to economic policymakers and threatened to push millions of the near-poor below the poverty line. The government in 2011 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's infrastructure to remove impediments to growth, while addressing climate change concerns, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesia's forests and peatlands, the focus of a potentially trailblazing $1 billion REDD+ pilot project.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.03 trillion (2010 est.) $970.6 billion (2009 est.) $928.2 billion (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $706.7 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2010 est.) 4.6% (2009 est.) 6% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,200 (2010 est.) $4,000 (2009 est.) $3,900 (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15.3% industry: 47% services: 37.6% (2010 est.)
Labor force: 116.5 million (2010 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38.3% industry: 12.8% services: 48.9% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2010 est.) 7.9% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line: 13.33% (2010)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3% highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2009) 39.4 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (2010 est.) 4.8% (2009 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 32.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
Budget: revenues: $119.5 billion expenditures: $132.9 billion (2011 est.)
Public debt: 25.5% of GDP (2010 est.) 27.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (2010 est.)
Electricity - production: 141.2 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 126.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production: 1.03 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1.292 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports: 404,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - imports: 767,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas - production: 82.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 40.47 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 42.33 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: $6.294 billion (2010 est.) $10.19 billion (2009 est.)
Exports: $158.2 billion (2010 est.) $119.6 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners: Japan 16.3%, China 9.9%, US 9.1%, Singapore 8.7%, South Korea 8%, India 6.3%, Malaysia 5.9% (2010)
Imports: $127.1 billion (2010 est.) $89.5 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 15.1%, Singapore 14.9%, Japan 12.5%, US 6.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 5.7%, Thailand 5.5% (2010)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $96.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $66.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Debt - external: $196.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $172.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $85.58 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $72.84 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $33.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $30.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $360.4 billion (31 December 2010) $178.2 billion (31 December 2009) $98.76 billion (31 December 2008)
Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,169.5 (2010) 10,389.9 (2009) 9,698.9 (2008) 9,143 (2007) 9,159.3 (2006)

Communications

Telephones in use: 33.958 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 9
Cellular Phones in use: 159.248 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .id
Internet hosts: 1.269 million (2010)
Internet users: 20 million (2009)

Transportation

Airports: 684 (2010) country comparison to the world: 10
Airports (paved runways): total: 171 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 50 914 to 1,523 m: 64 under 914 m: 34 (2010)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 513 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 25 under 914 m: 484 (2010)
Heliports: 64 (2010)
Pipelines: condensate 812 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 7,165 km; oil 5,984 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 617 km; water 44 km (2010)
Railways: total: 5,042 km narrow gauge: 5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2009)
Roadways: total: 437,759 km paved: 258,744 km unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)
Waterways: 21,579 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total: 1,244 by type: bulk carrier 95, cargo 601, chemical tanker 57, container 112, liquefied gas 17, passenger 47, passenger/cargo 76, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8 foreign-owned: 61 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 7, Malaysia 1, Norway 4, Singapore 42, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, US 2) registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, Hong Kong 8, Liberia 4, Mongolia 2, Panama 14, Singapore 53, unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Military

Military branches: Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 65,847,171 females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 54,264,299 females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)

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